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The 52:52:52 project, launching both on this site and on social media in early 2024 will help you address 52 issues with 52 responses over 52 weeks.

A Mundane Comedy is Dominic Kelleher's new book, which will be published in mid 2024. The introduction is available here and further extracts will appear on this site and on social media in the coming months.

This site addresses what's changing, in our own lives, in our organisations, and in wider society. You'll learn about key changes across more than 150 areas, ranging from ageing and time, through nature and animals, to kindness and love...and very much else inbetween.

Halcyon's aim is to help you reflect on how you can better deal with related change in your own life.

What's Changing? - Sleep



Please see below recent sleep-related change.


See also:


February 2024

  • Many of our higher faculties depend on a good night’s sleep. Not only are we more alert, but we tend to be calmer, more patient, and far more capable at a range of cognitive tasks. And sleep may be even more structural than that: the way we perceive reality and the way we process or calibrate our senses all depend on getting some decent sleep.


January 2024


December 2023

  • A start-up claimed technology-induced lucid dreaming could enable people to work while asleep. Prophetic said that their headband, the Halo, releases pulses of ultrasound waves into a region of the brain associated with lucid dreams. Its CEO claimed that the ability to remain in control of their choices while they dream could enable users to write code or work on a novel while they are sleeping.
  • As some of the working world returns to traditional office settings and many businesses revert to pre-pandemic operational norms, there are concerns over the potential adverse effects on mental wellbeing and sleep patterns. To address this, companies are tapping into the burgeoning 'sleep economy', as business leaders become increasingly cognisant of the profound impact of sleep deprivation. In 2024, experts predict more people will prioritise their sleep, as companies continue to invest in products that aid physical health and emotional wellbeing.


November 2023

  • For many, life in the information age has become a race against the clock to finish tasks and meet deadlines. In a sense, the information age has heralded a "sleepy age" for many, and this may be more acute among e.g. professional financial investors. The impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance is widely documented in medical, psychology, and economics studies, but as financial decision-making heavily relies on these cognitive processes, sleep loss also significantly affects financial market outcomes such as returns, trading activity and liquidity.


July 2023

  • Recent research making use of the large UK Biobank database showed that people who regularly nap have slightly larger brains than those who don't. While the difference in size was small, about 1.3%, the researchers note that it's equivalent to between 2.6 and 6.5 years of brain ageing. However. There were no cognitive benefits attached to the increase in brain size. 


June 2023

  • A study by University College London showed that nappers' brains are 15 cubic centimetres larger and that daily catnaps no more than 30 minutes long could delay ageing between three and six years. "Everybody could potentially experience some benefit from napping," said researcher Dr Victoria Garfield, and her colleague Valentina Paz noted that "regular napping could protect against neurodegeneration", like dementia and Alzheimer's.


March 2023


February 2023

  • Research that not only did people tend to sleep for longer in the winter, but they also spent more time in the "rapid eye movement", or REM, phase of sleep. This period of sleep is linked to the body’s circadian clock, which is affected by changes in light exposure, as well as being the phase in which people tend to dream and process emotions. Dr Dieter Kunz, the lead author of the study, says a lack of adjustment in human behaviour to seasonal changes could also explain why people some feel as though they are "running on empty" in February or March.


January 2023


December 2022


November 2022


August 2022


June 2022


April 2022


February 2022

  • Getting an hour or so more sleep each night can help people to cut calories, according a small clinical trial in overweight adults. Researchers in the US found that people who typically slept for less than 6.5 hours a night shed an average of 270 calories from their daily intake when they got an extra 1.2 hours of sleep. Sustained over three years, the reduction in calories could lead people to lose about 12kg (26lbs) without changing their diet during the day, the scientists believe. Some participants in the study consumed 500 fewer calories a day after improving their sleep.


January 2022

  • Insomnia is officially on the rise, and with it a range of ever-more far-fetched remedies and therapies. The pandemic, and the anxiety and uncertainty that accompanied it, led to a spike in sleeplessness, and terms such as “coronasomnia” and “momsomnia” are now in the lexicon. Articles, books and podcasts about sleep hygiene, digital detoxing, the calming powers of exercise and the dangers of sleep deprivation for one’s mental and physical health are popping up with increasing frequency, noted the FT.


November 2021

  • There appears to be an optimal bedtime - between 10pm and 11pm - linked to better heart health, according to researchers who studied 88,000 volunteers. The team behind the UK Biobank work believe synchronising sleep to match our internal body clock may explain the association found with a reduced risk of heart attacks and strokes. The body's natural 24-hour rhythm is important for wellbeing and alertness.
  • study by researchers from the Washington University School of Medicine indicated that just like getting too little sleep, sleeping too much may also be linked with cognitive decline. Overall, the researchers found that sleeping less than 4.5 hours and more than 6.5 hours a night, alongside poor quality sleep, was associated with cognitive decline over time. Indeed, the impact of sleep duration on cognitive function was similar to the effect of age, which is the greatest risk factor for developing cognitive decline.


September 2021

  • Quality of sleep has an enormous impact on both physical and mental wellbeing - and a lack of proper sleep can lead to poor health outcomes, from high blood pressure, to depression, to heart attacks and strokes. Wearables are becoming a hey technology to help consumers get a better night’s rest and by 2024, the sleep industry is expected to be worth $585bn


August 2021


July 2021

  • From video calls in pyjamas that characterised the early days of the pandemic to the practice of ‘bedmin’ – catching up on paperwork in the small hours – the combined bedroom/office became an unwelcome reality for millions. While enthusiasts hailed commute-free remote working as the perfect opportunity to relearn good sleep hygiene, it also became clear that lack of face-to-face contact and blurring of boundaries between people’s professional and domestic lives could be unhealthy, particularly for those who worked mostly from their beds. Talking to staff about how much sleep they’re getting is largely as organisational taboo. For some people, it can be an intensely personal matter that relatively few managers want to broach. but sleep deprivation costs the UK economy upwards of £40bn a year in lost productivity and with hybrid working becoming the rule in many industries, this total is only likely to increase.
  • In The Sleeping Beauties, neurologist Suzanne O'Sullivan explored 'psychosomatic illnesses', travelling the world collecting fascinating stories of culture-bound syndromes. Inspired by a poignant encounter with the sleeping refugee children of Sweden, she visited other communities who have also been subject to outbreaks of so-called ‘mystery’ illnesses. From a derelict post-Soviet mining town in Kazakhstan, to the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua via an oil town in Texas, to the heart of the Maria Mountains in Colombia, O’Sullivan heard remarkable stories from an array of people, and attempted to unravel their complex meaning.
  • Businesses in many countries, including Spain and China, find value in letting workers nap to recharge in the middle of the day. Others, like those in the US, largely frown upon it. The mental, physical, and economic benefits of napping are many; studies show that children who nap daily experience an increase in energy, academic scores, and happiness, while simultaneously experiencing less moodiness and fewer behavioural problems.
  • In Habits for a Good Sleep, Dr Tim Sharp warned that the average person spends 26 years of their life sleeping, but many of us are still tired, all the time. The reality is, sleep is not a priority for most of us and even though we’re getting sleep, it might not be the type of sleep we need. 


June 2021

  • For The School of Life, to a surprising extent, some of the gravest problems we face during a day can be traced back to a brutally simple fact: that we have not had enough sleep the night before. We often fail to appreciate the extent to which our ability to confront them with courage and resilience is dependent on a range of distinctly ‘small’ or ‘low’ factors: what our blood sugar level is like, when we last had a proper hug from someone, how much water we’ve drunk – and how many hours we’ve rested.
  • Sleeplessness was already at what the World Health Organization called “epidemic” levels even before Covid-19. The pandemic made those feelings more widespread and intense, which can lead to a condition some health experts have termed “coronasomnia.” Therapy and medication were the gold standards of treatment for sleeplessness, but in recent years, there’s also been an explosion of gadgets and apps promising better sleep through technology. Quartz published tips for sleeping well in a field guide. 
  • Sleep paralysis, which 20 percent of people experience at least once, can be terrifying. Though it is a neurological phenomenon, culture and beliefs can make the experience worse. One potential treatment is to learn to control the content of our dreams.


May 2021

  • A number of theories attempting to explain dreaming exist. These include the ideas that dreams are needed to regulate our emotional health and that they help us psychologically practice for encountering real-world phenomena. The leading contemporary theory is that dreams are involved with or even caused by memory processing and storage. A paper published in the journal Patterns proposed a new hypothesis: dreaming is the brain's attempt to generalise our experiences, much like how randomness must be used to teach computers how to recognise real world-data, noted Big Think. 


April 2021


March 2021

  • Octopuses might dream like humans. But their dreams only last for about a minute during active sleep, according to Quartz.


February 2021

  • Lucid dreamers can communicate. If you pose a question to somebody who knows they’re dreaming, they might answer you with eye movement, reported Quartz.
  • Sleep is probably the most effective thing we can do to reset our mind and body each day. However, with one in three of us suffering from poor sleep due to factors such as stress, working late and too much screen time, having a good night’s sleep can be hard to achieve. Sleep expert and author of Why We Sleep Matthew Walker says: “People often tell me they don’t have enough time to sleep because they have so much work to do. Without wanting to be combative in any way whatsoever, I respond by informing them that perhaps the reason they still have so much to do at the end of the day is precisely because they do not get enough sleep at night”, noted EY.


December 2020

  • The director of the Centre for Human Sleep Science at UC Berkeley coined this time in history as a “catastrophic sleep loss epidemic.” To make matters worse, recent studies show that there has been a rise in sleep disorders like insomnia and hypersomnia associated with the pandemic. Across the United States alone, the number of prescriptions filled for sleep disorders increased by nearly 15% between in just one month of 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. Sleep deprivation not only affects our moods, but also our health and work-life balance, warned the Harvard Business Review.
  • Early humans may have survived harsh winters by hibernating. According to fossil experts, disruptions in bone development show that Neanderthals may have slept through winters like cave bears and bats, reported Quartz.


November 2020


October 2020

  • Big Think reported on a study from the University of South Florida's School of Ageing Studies,  published in the journal Sleep Health, which uncovers a critical best practice for nurses: sleep. In this study of 61 full-time nurses in U.S. hospitals, an extra 29 minutes of sleep every night helped these frontline workers be more mindful while on the job. Nurses are expert multitaskers- the antithesis of mindfulness, though given their job duties, juggling multiple obligations comes with the territory. It's easy to overlook a blood test or temperature check when the hospital floor is slammed. Mindfulness plays an important role in helping them stay on track without becoming overwhelmed by tasks.


September 2020

  • Scientists now use algorithms to analyse records of thousands of dreams. It is only since the publication of Sigmund Freud’s treatise The Interpretation of Dreams, in 1899, that dreams have become a subject of serious scientific scrutiny. Things have moved on since Freud’s day. His emphasis on violent urges and sexual repression as the roots of dreaming now looks old-fashioned. Instead, the premise is that dreams reflect a dreamer’s quotidian experience - either because they are an epiphenomenon of the consolidation of memories or because they are a mental testing ground for ideas the dreamer may have to put into practice when awake. This resemblance between dreams and reality is dubbed the "continuity hypothesis" by psychologists.


July 2020

  • There are three different types of sleep patterns: monophasic sleep (one chunk at night for a recommended 6-8 hours), biphasic sleep (two chunks in a 24-hour period), and polyphasic sleep (three or more chunks in a 24-hour period). While sleeping, you cycle through four stages: two light, one deep, and one REM. Switching sleep patterns can disrupt these stages, as can consuming alcohol. So while attempting to maximise your awake time, you may be denying your brain and body the time it needs to recover, which can be dangerous, warned Big Think.

June 2020


February 2020

  • Humans should hide away in winter. Taking cues from animals that hibernate, we can use the cold months as a time for restoration, claimed Quartz.


January 2020

  • The US$70 billion sleep aid industry is thriving, with high-tech mattresses, sleep trackers, and even cuddly robots promising to solve the world’s sleeplessness. Quartz looked at how sleep startups managed to monetise a basic function of life - and why consumers are buying in.


December 2019


November 2019


September 2019


August 2019


July 2019


May 2019

  • A lot of attention has been given to the negative consequences of social media on the human psyche, noted Big Think. Likewise, specific and long overdue workplace issues are under dissection: gender discrimination and sexual harassment, fair pay, and surviving in the gig economy. One lesser discussed yet pervasive topic is now being looked at: incivility. Given all of the incivility in social media, that it seeps into our workplace is not surprising; it was there long before we could tweet out unthinking nonsense at strangers. In some ways we're becoming, by the day, a less empathetic culture. A study published in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, pinpointed one major issue arising from rudeness at work: sleep problems.


April 2019


March 2019


February 2019


January 2019


November 2018

  • Work, friendships, exercise, parenting, eating, reading - there just aren’t enough hours in the day, noted Aeon, adding that, to live fully, many carve those extra hours out of their sleep time. Then they pay for it the next day. A thirst for life leads many to pine for a drastic reduction, if not elimination, of the human need for sleep. Little wonder: if there were a widespread disease that similarly deprived people of a third of their conscious lives, the search for a cure would be lavishly funded. It’s the Holy Grail of sleep researchers, and they might be closing in.


October 2018

  • Most people who wake up at 4 a.m. do it because they have to - farmers, flight attendants, currency traders and postal workers. Others rise before dawn because they want to. However, a Wall Street Journal article argued that 4 a.m. to 6 a.m. can be the most planned, most organised and most scheduled part of the day.
  • However, Quartz argued that the cult of early rising seems to miss a pretty obvious point: There is an opportunity cost involved. First and foremost, if you’re waking up this early without going to bed early, you’re going to be very tired and sleep-deprived
  • People who wake in the night and feel paralysed with terror aren’t crazy or imagining things, found Quartz. During the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep, the muscles relax to the point where they become immobilised, probably to keep us from violently acting out our dreams when we sleep. This is also the stage of the most intense dreams. People who experience sleep paralysis have essentially woken up before they’ve stopped dreaming. An estimated 8% of people experience it regularly, and some estimates have placed the number of people who have at least one experience of it in their lifetimes as high as 40%.
  • Many who experience sleep paralysis also experience hypnagogic hallucinations: vivid images perceived in the transition from wakefulness to sleep, or the other way around. Spiders or insects crawling up the walls is a particularly common such vision, according to Alon Avidan, a professor of neurology at the University of California Los Angeles and director of the UCLA Sleep Disorders Center. So are human-shaped figures. These episodes are often accompanied by a profound sense of fear and anxiety, and a sense that something is trying to harm the sleeper.


August 2018

  • Sleep is often imagined as a sort of non-entity, the opposite of consciousness. It shouldn’t be, according to National Geographic, which showed dreamy photographs balancing a deep dive into the science of sleep’s complex stages and the human forces - artificial light, cultural norms, and sleep aids - that affect them.
  • Thousands of people watch a 66-year-old man sleep. The man has been broadcasting his slumber on Periscope and Twitch since 2017.
  • Further reading: Nap time for grown-ups: will sleeping pods catch on?


July 2018


June 2018

  • Eight hours of sleep a night isn’t enough. A leading sleep scientist says 8.5 hours is the right amount of time in bed.
  • In its special report, Everything you need to know about sleep, the FT asked why though we can’t survive without it, why is sleep often so elusive - and how can we get more of it?



  • Sleep is necessary for maintaining good health. As part of research into human sleep patterns, attempts have been made to break the world record for sleep deprivation.
  • The sleep industry is the US alone is estimated to be worth $30 billion annually, according to the Financial Times.